Of all the major alternative rock bands of the early ’90s, the Smashing Pumpkins were the group least influenced by traditional underground rock. Lead guitarist/songwriter Billy Corgan fashioned an amalgam of progressive rock, heavy metal, goth rock, psychedelia, and dream pop, creating a layered, powerful sound driven by swirling, distorted guitars. Corgan was wise enough to exploit his angst-ridden lyrics, yet he never shied away from rock star posturing, even if he did cloak it in allegedly ironic gestures. In fact, the Smashing Pumpkins became the model for alternative rock success. Pearl Jam shunned it and Nirvana was too destructive. The Pumpkins, on the other hand, knew how to play the game, signing to a major-subsidized indie for underground credibility and moving to the major in time to make the group a multi-platinum act. And when the Pumpkins did achieve mass success with 1993’s Siamese Dream, they went a long way to legitimize heavy metal and orchestrated prog rock, helping move alternative rock even closer to ’70s AOR, especially in the eyes of radio programmers and mainstream audiences. Unlike many of their contemporaries, they were able to withstand many internal problems and keep selling records, emerging as the longest-lasting and most successful alternative band of the early ’90s.